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2007 Resolutions: DARFUR
BELGESI


Resolution no. 1784 - 31 October 2007



Daha Büyük Haritayı Görüntüle


Some of the highlights:

Determining that the situation in the Sudan continues to constitute a
threat to

international peace and security,



  • Decides to
    extend the mandate of UNMIS until 30 April 2008, with the intention to renew it for
    further periods;

  • Requests
    the Secretary-General to report to the Council every three months on the
    implementation of the mandate of UNMIS, progress on implementation of the
    CPA, and respect for the ceasefire;

  • Stresses
    the importance of full and expeditious implementation of all elements of
    the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the N’djamena Humanitarian Ceasefire
    Agreement, the Darfur Peace Agreement; (...)



Full text ...



Resolution no. 1769 - 31 July 2007  HYBRID MISSION

Some of the highlights:

The Security Council




  • Decides,
    in support of the early and effective implementation of the Darfur Peace
    Agreement and the outcome of the negotiations foreseen in paragraph 18, to
    authorise and mandate the establishment, for an initial period of 12
    months, of an AU/UN Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID) (...)

  • Decides
    that UNAMID, which shall incorporate AMIS personnel and the UN Heavy and
    Light Support Packages to AMIS, shall consist of up to 19,555 military
    personnel, including 360 military observers and liaison officers, and an
    appropriate civilian component including up to 3,772 police personnel and
    19 formed police units comprising up to 140 personnel each; (...)



Full text ...



Resolution no. 1755 - 30 April 2007


Some of the highlights:

The Security Council




  • Decides to
    extend the mandate of UNMIS until 31 October 2007, with

    the intention to renew it for further periods;

  • Requests
    the Secretary-General to appoint urgently a new Special Representative for
    the Sudan

    and to report to the Council every three months on the implementation of
    the mandate of UNMIS; (...)





COMPREHENSIVE PEACE AGREEMENT

The background to Sudan's
CPA:



For all but 11 of the 48 years since its independence in
1956, Sudan

has been engulfed in civil conflict. The conflict between the North and the
South erupted one year before Sudan
gained its independence in 1955.



The war that the Government of Sudan and the Sudan's People Liberation
Movement/Army (SPLAM/A) recently ended, erupted in 1983, following the
breakdown of the 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement. The root causes which propelled
the war included disputes over resources, power, the role of religion in the
state and self-determination.



The ensuing 21-year conflict devastated a significant part
of Africa's largest country and deprived the
rest of stability, growth and development. The Sudanese people have paid a
terrible price. More than two million people died, four million were uprooted
and some 600,000 people sought shelter beyond Sudan's borders as refugees.



The nature and size of the country's problems have
frequently overflowed into neighboring countries and brought misery and
insecurity to the region.



Over the long years of war, there was a plethora of
attempts by various external actors, including neighboring States, concerned
donors and other States, as well as the parties themselves, to bring the
conflict to an end. However, the immense complexities of the war and the lack
of political will prevented its earlier resolution.



In 1993, the Heads of State of the Intergovernmental
Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) became involved in the latest
initiative to bring the parties together. This was the beginning of a long
process that has led to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in
2005.



The United Nations has closely followed and supported the
regional peace initiative under the auspices of the Inter-Governmental
Authority on Development (IGAD). The Secretary-General's Special Adviser, Mr.
Mohamed Sahnoun, and other senior officials represented the UN at summit
meetings of the IGAD countries, and carried out consultations with regional
governments and organizations in support of the peace process. They also took
part in meetings of the IGAD-Partners Forum, composed of donor countries and
organizations supporting the IGAD peace process and assisting the regional
organization to enhance its capacity in several areas.



The Six Agreements:



Under the mediation of the Intergovernmental Authority on
Development (IGAD), the Government of the Sudan and the SPLM/A signed a
series of six agreements:




  • The
    Protocol of Machakos:


    Signed in Machakos, Kenya, on 20 July 2002, in which the parties agreed
    on a broad framework, setting forth the principles of governance, the
    transitional process and the structures of government as well as on the
    right to self-determination for the people of South
    Sudan
    , and on state and religion

  • The
    Protocol on security arrangements:



    Signed in Naivasha, Kenya, on 25 September 2003

  • The
    Protocol on wealth-sharing:


    Signed in Naivasha, Kenya, on 7 January 2004


  • The
    Protocol on Power-sharing:


    Signed in Naivasha, Kenya, on 26 May 2004

  • The
    Protocol on the resolution of conflict in southern Kordofan/Nuba Mountains
    and the Blue Nile States:



    Signed in Naivasha, Kenya,
    on 26 May 2004

  • The
    Protocol on the resolution of conflict in Abyie:


    Signed in Naivasha, Kenya, on 26 May 2004




To read the full text of these six protocols, click
here
.



Three agreements needed to be finalized in order to achieve
a comprehensive peace accord: one on permanent cease-fire arrangements, one on
the implementation of all Protocols signed and the one yet to be concluded on
permanent cease-fire arrangements and, one on the International/Regional
Guarantees.



The negotiations between the parties on Permanent Cease-Fire
protocol were stalled during the round of talks, held in Naivasha in July 2004.
The parties could not reach agreement on a number of issues, mainly: the
redeployment of forces in eastern Sudan and the financing of the
SPLM/A.



Under sustained pressure from the international community,
the UN Security Council, the UN Secretary-General and his Special
Representative for the Sudan,
the African Union and the IGAD, the parties agreed to resume the peace talks in

Nairobi, on 7 October, 2004.



The talks resumed with high level discussions between the
First Vice-President Ali Osman Taha and the Chairman of the SPLM/A, John
Garang.



On 16 October, the two leaders issued a joint press
statement in which they declared that issues discussed and resolved during the negotiations
on a Permanent Cease-Fire arrangement during the pre-interim and interim period
included the following:




  1. The
    Joint/Integrated Units (JIUs) in Eastern Sudan;


  2. Establishment
    of JIUs Service Arms;

  3. Collaborative
    approach of handling other armed groups;

  4. Other
    aspects of permanent cease-fire including the role of United Nations Peace
    Support Mission.



The parties also agreed that:




  • The
    technical committee on the ceasefire negotiations would continue to
    discuss any remaining issues including the funding of the armed forces and
    timing of incorporating and integrating other armed groups into respective
    structures of the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and Sudan People's Liberation
    Movement/Army;


  • The
    technical committee on Implementation Modalities and International/Regional
    Guarantees would immediately commence its work;

  • The First
    Vice-President and the Chairman of the SPLM/A would return after the month
    of Ramadan to finalize the Comprehensive Peace Agreement on a date to be
    communicated by the parties by the IGAD Secretariat.





Sudan is the largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile river and its tributaries.




  • Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea

  • Border
    Countries
    : Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605
    km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Uganda 435 km, Democratic Republic of
    the Congo 628 km, Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Libya
    383 km

  • Area: 2.5m sq km (966,757 sq miles)


  • Area
    - Comparative
    : slightly more than
    one-quarter of the size of the USA

  • Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south,
    northeast and west; desert dominates the north

  • Elevation
    Extremes
    : lowest point: Red
    Sea
    0 m, highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m

  • Climate: tropical in the south; arid desert in the north; rainy season
    between April to October


  • Natural
    Resources
    : petroleum; small reserves of
    iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold,
    hydropower










 MISSION'S MANDATE The UN Security Council established the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)
with its unanimous adoption of Security Council Resolution 1590 on 24 March 2005. UNMIS was initially
established for a period of six months.



According to its mandate, UNMIS is tasked with supporting
the implementation of the Comprehensive
Peace Agreement
. UNMIS is also tasked with facilitating the voluntary
return of refugees and displaced persons; providing demining assistance; and
contributing towards international efforts to protect and promote human rights
in Sudan.



The mandate authorizes UNMIS to have up to 10,000 military
personnel and an appropriate civilian component, including up to 715 civilian
police personnel.



Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, UNMIS is
authorized to take the necessary action, in the areas of deployment of its
forces, and as it deems within its capabilities, to protect United Nations
personnel and to ensure their security and freedom of movement, as well as,
without prejudice to the responsibility of the Sudanese Government, to protect
civilians under imminent threat of physical violence.



The Security Council also requested the UN Secretary-General,
through his Special Representative in Sudan "to coordinate all the
activities of the UN system in Sudan, to mobilize resources and support from
the international community for both immediate assistance and the long-term
economic development of Sudan, and to facilitate coordination with other
international actors, in particular the African Union and Inter-Governmental
Authority on Development (IGAD), of activities in support of the transitional
process established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, and to provide good
offices and political support for the efforts to resolve all ongoing conflicts
in Sudan."



In the resolution, the Security Council underscored the
immediate need to rapidly increase the number of human rights monitors in Darfur. It urged the Secretary-General and the UN High
Commissioner for Human Rights to accelerate the deployment of human rights
monitors to Darfur and augment their numbers
and also to move forward with the formation of civilian monitoring protection
teams.



In addition, the Security Council emphasized that there can
be no military solution to the conflict in Darfur, and called on the Government
of the Sudan and the rebel groups, particularly the Justice and Equality
Movement and the Sudanese Liberation Army/Movement to resume the Abuja talks
rapidly without preconditions and negotiate in good faith to speedily reach
agreement.





 



People:



Map of Sudan




  • Population: 40,187,486 (July 2005 estimate)

  • Nationality: noun: Sudanese (singular and plural); adjective: Sudanese

  • Major
    Languages
    : Arabic; English, tribal
    languages


  • Ethnic
    Groups
    : African 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%,
    foreigners 2%, other 1%

  • Religions: Sunni Muslim 70% (mostly in the north), indigenous beliefs
    25%, Christian 5% (mostly in the south and Khartoum)

  • Life
    expectancy
    : 54 years (men), 57 years
    (women) (UN sources)










TOP



Government:



Map of Sudan




  • Country
    Name
    :


    - Conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan

    -
    Conventional short form: Sudan

    - Local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan

    - Local short form: As-Sudan

  • Capital: Khartoum


  • Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)

  • National
    Holiday
    :
    Independence Day, 1 January (1956)


  • Sudan's administrative structure*: Sudan is a republic with a
    federal system of government. There are multiple levels of administration,
    with 26 states (Wilayaat) subdivided into approximately 120
    localities
    (Mahaliyaat). These localities are supported by
    popular committees (Lijan Shabiyaat), which are responsible for local
    development.



GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY:



Presidency:




  • President: Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir

  • First
    Vice-President
    : Salva Kiir Mayardit

  • Vice
    President
    : Ali Uthman Muhammad Taha




Assistants to the President: Dr. Nafie Ali Nafie



Federal Ministers (Cabinet Ministers):




  • Presidency
    Affairs:
    Maj Gen Bakri Hassan Salih

  • Council
    of Ministers:
    Deng Alor


  • Federal
    Rule:
    Abdelbasit Sabdrat

  • Defence: Maj Gen Abdelrahim Mohamed Hussein

  • Foreign
    Affairs:
    Dr. Lam Akol Ajawin

  • Interior: Prof. Al-Zubeir Bashir Taha


  • Finance
    & National Economy:
    Al Zubeir Ahmed
    Al Hassan

  • Information
    and Communications:
    Al-Zahawi Ibrahim Malik

  • Parliamentary
    Affairs:
    Joseph Okelo


  • Justice: Mohamed Ali Al-Mardi

  • International
    Co-Operation:
    Al-Tijani Salih Fidail

  • Humanitarian
    Affairs:
    Kosti Manili

  • Science
    & Technology:
    Prof Al Zubeir Bashir
    Taha


  • Energy
    & Mining:
    Dr Awad Ahmed al Jaz

  • Industry: Dr Jallal Yousif Mohamed al Digair

  • Investment: Malik Agar Ayar


  • Foreign
    Trade:
    George Borneg Niyami

  • Agriculture
    & Forests:
    Mohamed Al-Amin Eisa
    Kabashi

  • Irrigation
    & Water Resources:
    Engineer Kamal Ali
    Mohamed


  • Animal
    Resources & Fisheries:
    Brig. (Rtd)
    Galwak Deng

  • Transport,
    Roads & Bridges:
    Kuwal Maniang Ajok

  • Environment
    & Urban Development:
    Dr. Ahmed
    Babikir Nahar


  • Tourism
    & Wild Life:
    Joseph Malwal

  • Higher
    Education & Scientific Research:
    Dr.
    Peter Niyot Kok

  • Social
    Welfare & Woman & Child Affairs:


    Samiya Ahmed Mohamed

  • Religious
    Guidance & Endowments:
    Dr. Azhari
    Al-Tijan Awadalseed

  • Labour,
    Public Service & Human Resources Development:
    Maj Gen (Rtd) Alison Manani Magaya


  • Health: Dr. Tabita Sokaya

  • Culture,
    Youth & Sports:
    Mohamed Yusif
    Abdallah

  • General
    (Basic) Education:
    Hamid Mohamed Ibrahim

  • Science
    and Technology:
    Lt-Gen Abdelrahman Saeed




According to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the Sudan
People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) leader will form the government of Southern Sudan and the government of the southern states.




  • Economy
    - Overview
    : Sudan has turned around a
    struggling economy with sound economic policies and infrastructure
    investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems, starting
    from its low level of per capita output. From 1997 to date, Sudan

    has been implementing macroeconomic reforms of the International Monetary
    Fund. In 1999, Sudan
    began exporting crude oil and in the last quarter of 1999 recorded its
    first trade surplus, which, along with monetary policy, has stabilized the
    exchange rate. Increased oil production, revived light industry, and
    expanded export processing zones helped sustain GDP growth at 6.4% in
    2004. Agriculture production remains Sudan's most important sector,
    employing 80% of the work force, contributing 39% of GDP, and accounting
    for most of GDP growth, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to
    drought. Chronic instability - including the long-standing civil war,
    adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices - ensure that much of
    the population remain at or below the poverty line

  • Labor
    Force - by Occupation
    : agriculture 80%,
    industry and commerce 7%, government 13% (1998 estimate)

  • Agriculture
    - Products
    : cotton, groundnuts (peanuts),
    sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos,
    papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock


  • Industries: oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar,
    soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments,
    automobile/light truck assembly

  • Main
    exports
    : Oil, cotton, sesame, livestock
    and hides, gum

  • Currency: Sudanese Dinar (SDD)

  • GNI
    per capita
    : US $370 (World Bank, 2002)

  • Monetary
    unit
    : 225 Sudanese Dinars = US$1




 



 



TRUSTEE





 





 



 



 



The UN Advance Mission in Sudan (UNAMIS) was set up following
the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1547 on 11 June 2004.



It was given the task of preparing for a full-fledged UN
peace support mission to be deployed during the interim period following the
signing of a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Government of
Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A).



In Paragraph 1 of the Resolution, the Security Council
welcomed "the Secretary-General's proposal to establish for an
initial period of three months, and under the authority of a Special
Representative of the Secretary-General, a UN advance team in Sudan as a special political
mission.
"



In Paragraph 4, the Security Council requested that the UN
Secretary-General "take the necessary preparatory steps, including in
particular pre-positioning the most critical logistical and personnel
requirements to facilitate the rapid deployment of the above-mentioned possible
operation, principally to assist the parties in monitoring and verifying
compliance with the terms of a CPA as well as to prepare for the Organization's
role during the transitional period in Sudan."



UNAMIS was transformed into the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)
on 24 March 2005, with the UN Security Council's adoption of Resolution 1590 which tasked UNMIS with supporting the
Government of Sudan and the SPLM/A in the implementation of the CPA.





 



 



 



 



 



 



            the United Nations considers the Darfur conflict to be one of the world’s worst
humanitarian crises.



It began in 2003 when a rebel group began attacking
Government of Sudan targets, claiming that Khartoum was neglecting the region. There had
been tension in Darfur for many years over land and grazing rights, as the Sahara desert advanced slowly southwards.



The tension was between the mostly nomadic Arabs and the
African ethnic groups. The conflict has seen clashes between the Government of
Sudan and two rebel groups, the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the
Justice and Equality Movement (JEM).



Some 2.1 million people are believed to have left their
homes, and up to 70,000 have been killed. Most of those who have fled are in
camps in Darfur ’s main towns, but about 200,000 have
fled to neighbouring Chad

and others are camped along the border between the two countries.



On 3 July 2004, the Government of the Sudan and the United
Nations signed a Joint Communiqué on the occasion of the visit of the UN
Secretary-General to Sudan (that visit was held between 29 June-3 July 2004).



The Joint Communiqué identified the commitments of the Government
of the Sudan to resolve the Darfur crisis. It also contained the United Nations’
commitment to assist in this matter.



In the Joint Communiqué, the two parties agreed to form a
high level Joint Implementation Mechanism (JIM). The mandate of the JIM is to
closely follow and appraise developments and periodically report on the
progress in the implementation of the Joint Communiqué.



The JIM is co-chaired by the Minister of Foreign Affairs,
for the Government of the Sudan , and by the Special Representative of the
Secretary-General (SRSG) for the Sudan , for the United Nations and
its partners.



There is an ongoing political process on Darfur,
aimed at finding a peaceful solution to the fighting. The process is led by the
African Union, and yielded positive results in November 2004, with the signing
of Humanitarian and Security Protocols between the Government and the SLM/A and
JEM.



More recently, the parties to the talks concluded a
Declaration of Principles (DoP) on 5 July 2005 in Abuja, Nigeria, intended to provide a political
framework for the next round of talks scheduled to resume in Abuja on 24 August.



The DoP makes provision for the convening of a
Darfur-Darfur dialogue following the signing of an agreement on Darfur, to discuss longer-term issues affecting the
region. The dialogue itself is expected to major civil society organisations
and other unarmed opposition groups, who are not participating in the current
talks.



It is hoped that the negotiations beginning 24 August
between the Government and the SLM/A and JEM, set to
discuss wealth- and power-sharing and security arrangements, will be the final
before the signing of a comprehensive agreement by the end of 2005.



Based on
Resolution 1556
(2004) of the Security Council, dated 30 July 2004 , and Resolution
1564
(2004), dated 18
September 2004
, the UN Mission in Sudan supports the Secretary-General
and the SRSG in:




  • Preparing
    the monthly reports submitted to the Security Council at its request on
    the progress or lack thereof by the Government of the Sudan in complying with the
    Council’s demands;

  • Working
    closely with the Government of the Sudan in supporting
    independent investigation of violations of human rights and international
    humanitarian law

  • Preparing
    for the incorporation into UNMIS contingency planning for the Darfur region;


  • Assisting
    the African Union with planning and assessments for its mission in Darfur;

  • Preparing,
    in accordance with the Joint Communiqué, to support the implementation of
    a future agreement in Darfur in close
    cooperation with the African Union and preparing reports on progress on
    this matter.





 



 



 



 



 



 



 



 



            On July 31
2007, The UN Security Council adopted the Resolution no. 1769, "reaffirming its concern that the
ongoing violence in Darfur might further negatively affect the rest of Sudan as
well as the region, stressing that regional security aspects must be addressed
to achieve long-term peace in Darfur, and calling on the Governments of Sudan
and Chad to abide by their obligations under the Tripoli Agreement of 8
February 2006 and subsequent bilateral agreements; Determining that the
situation in Darfur, Sudan continues to constitute a threat to international
peace and security,




  • Decides,
    in support of the early and effective implementation of the Darfur Peace
    Agreement and the outcome of the negotiations foreseen in paragraph 18, to
    authorise and mandate the establishment, for an initial period of 12
    months, of an AU/UN Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID) as set out in this
    resolution and pursuant to the report of the Secretary-General and the
    Chairperson of the African Union Commission of 5 June 2007, and further
    decides that the mandate of UNAMID shall be as set out in paragraphs 54
    and 55 of the report of the Secretary General and the Chairperson of the
    African Union Commission of 5 June 2007;

  • Decides
    that UNAMID, which shall incorporate AMIS personnel and the UN Heavy and
    Light Support Packages to AMIS, shall consist of up to 19,555 military
    personnel, including 360 military observers and liaison officers, and an
    appropriate civilian component including up to 3,772 police personnel and
    19 formed police units comprising up to 140 personnel each;

  • Welcomes
    the appointment of the AU-UN Joint Special Representative for Darfur
    Rodolphe Adada and Force Commander Martin Agwai, and calls on the
    Secretary-General to immediately begin deployment of the command and
    control structures and systems necessary to ensure a seamless transfer of
    authority from AMIS to UNAMID;

  • Calls on
    all parties to urgently facilitate the full deployment of the UN Light and
    Heavy Support Packages to AMIS and preparations for UNAMID, and further
    calls on member states to finalise their contributions to UNAMID within 30
    days of the adoption of this resolution and on the Secretary-General and
    the Chairperson of the African Union Commission to agree the final
    composition of the military component of UNAMID within the same time
    period; (...)



The full text of the Resolution »



UNAMID Locations



_ Mission HQ: El Fasher



_ Sector HQs: El Fasher, Nyala (also Mission Logistics Base), El
Geneina



_ “Sub”-Sector HQ: Zalingei



_ Up to 55 other locations of deployment



Terrain, environment, distances



_ Arid, limited water, sand storms



_ Flooding likely during rainy season (April-Oct)



_ Sudan is Africa’s
largest country



_ Darfur is approximately the size of France



_ 500 km wide (from as far west as the Chad
border to as far east as eastern North Darfur)



_ 2,200 km from Port Sudan to
Nyala, in South Darfur



_ Limited and poor infrastructure (road, rail, airstrips, water,
electricity, etc)



_ Ground movement times:



– El Fasher to El Geneina: 3 days



– El Fasher to Al Daein: 2 days



– El Fasher to Tine: 3 days



Composition



_ Military: Up to 19,555, including 360 Military Observers and
Liaison Officers



_ Police: 3,772 civilian police officers plus 19 Formed Police
Units (FPUs) of up to 140 personnel each



(max. 3,772 + 2,660 =
6,432)



_ Civilian: 5,105



_ TOTAL: 31,042 personnel



Force Generation



_ Two troop and Police Contributing Country (TCC/PCC) meetings
held in August, following adoption



of Security Council resolution 1769 on 31 July 2007

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